Flintshire Lead Mining



01. Home
02. General Lead Mining History
03a. Halkyn Mines: History
03b. Halkyn Mines: A few artefact photos
03c. Halkyn Mines: info downloads
03d. Halkyn Mines: Don Richardson - electrician
03e. Milwr Tunnel: Recent work
04. MAP: Veins of Halkyn Mountain
05. Blaen-y-nant vein, Eryrys
06. Westminster vein, Eryrys
07. Fron Fownog Flats, Gwernaffield
08. Pilkington's vein, Loggerheads
09. North Henblas Mine, Milwr
10. Deterioration of the mining record
11. Talargoch Mine
A. Mines lighting old & new
B. Links
C. Further reading
D. Cris's Shop Window







C. Further reading


AGRICOLA, GEORGIUS (1556). De Re Metallica. Translated by H.C. & L.H. Hoover (1950).
BAYLES, RUSSELL (1969) A Brief Survey of Beam Pumping Engines Employed on Lead Mines in Flintshire. Memoirs of the Northern Cavern and Mine Research Society, (January), pages 8-14

BENNETT, J. ed. (1995) Minera: Lead Mines and Quarries (Wrexham Maelor Borough Council)

BEVAN-EVANS, (1963) M. Gadlys and Flintshire Lead Mining in the 18th. Century (Hawarden: Flintshire Record Office)

BURT, R. (1984) The British Lead Mining Industry (Dyllansow Truran)


BURT, R. et al (1992) The Mines of Flintshire and Denbighshire [the Mineral Statistics 1845-1913] (University of Exeter Press)

EARP, J.R. (1958) Mineral Veins of the Minera-Maeshafn District of North Wales. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, No.14, pages 44-69
EBBS, CRIS (2008) The Milwr Tunnel (Second Edition). ISBN 978 0 9522242 3 5. Can be ordered online at: www.lulu.com/crisebbs  Also available from The Bookshop, High Street, Mold.
ELLIS, BRYN (1998) History of Halkyn Mountain ISBN 0 9534011 0 3
FRANCIS, J.L. & ALLEN, J.C. (1932). Driving a mines drainage tunnel in North Wales. Transactions of the Institution of Mining & Metallurgy, 41, pages 234-271.
FRANCIS, J.L. & THOMPSON JACOB, J. (1938). An attempt at sealing natural water holes or `swallows' in the River Alyn. Halkyn District United Mines Limited. Unpublished.
HOOSON, WILLIAM (1747) A Miners Dictionary
HOUSTEN, W.J. (1963) Limestone Mining at Halkyn (and Old Lead Mines). Mine and Quarry Engineering, Vol.29 (December), pages 514-519
KELLY, R.S. (1976) Metal Working in North Wales During the Roman Period. Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies, Vol.XXVII No.1

KING, T.  (2006), 'The Maes-y-safn lead mine', Denbighshire Historical Society Transactions, Vol 54 pp 32-54.

KINNAIRD COMMISSION (1864) (copy held by Flintshire Record Office, Hawarden)
LEWIS, W.J. (1967) Lead Mining in Wales (Cardiff: University of Wales Press)
MITCHELL, F.B. (1946) Dressing of Complex Lead-Zinc Ores (Mill Close and Halkyn). Mine and Quarry Engineering, Vol.12 (November), pages 135-144
NORTH, F.J. (1962) Mining for Metals in Wales (Cardiff: National Museum of Wales). Now available online: http://www.aditnow.co.uk/documents/personal-album-128/Mining-for-metals-in-Wales.pdf
PATERSON, J.E.A. (1952) Lead and Limestone from North Wales. Mining Magazine, Vol.LXXXVII No.5 (November), pages 265-272
PENNANT, THOMAS (1988 reprint) History of the Parishes of Whitford and Holywell
PRATT, D. (1962) Lead Mining Community at Minera in the 14th Century. Denbighshire Historical Society Transactions, Vol.11, pages 28-36
PRATT, D. (1976) Minera: Township of the Mines. Denbighshire Historical Society Transactions, Vol.25 pp.114-154 
PRATT, D. (1982) Speculative and Exploratory Lead Mining at Llandegla. Denbighshire Historical Society Transactions, Vol.31, pages 29-46
REES, D.MORGAN (1972) Metalliferous Mines of Wales (Bulletin of the National Museum of Wales,
REES, D.MORGAN (1969) Mills, Mines and Furnaces: Industrial Archaeology in Wales (H.M.S.O. National Museum of Wales)
RHODES, J.N. (1968) London (Quaker) Lead Company and the Prestatyn Mines Scandal. Flintshire Historical Society Publication, Vol.23, pages 42-53
RHODES, J.N. (1968) Derbyshire Influences on Lead Mining in North Wales in the 17th and 18th centuries. Bulletin of the Peak District Mines Historical Society, Vol.3 No.6 (October), pages 339-352
RHODES, J.N. (1970) London Lead Company in North Wales, 1693-1872. University of Leicester PhD Thesis  
RHODES, J.N. (1971) Lead Mills at Mold. Flintshire Historical Society, pages 21-30
RHODES, J.N. (1972) Lead Mills at Mold. Flintshire Historical Society Journal, Vol.25, pages 213-30
RICHARDS, MELVILLE (1963) English Miners at Minera. Denbighshire Historical Society Transactions, Vol.12 page 169
RICHARDSON, J.B. (1936). A Revival of Lead Mining at Halkyn, North Wales. Trans of the Inst. of Mining & Metallurgy, 46, pages 339-461.
RICHARDSON, J.B. (1938). Tunnelling in Rock. Trans of the Nat Assoc. of Colliery Managers Vol XXXV, pages 55-69.
SCHNELLMANN, G.A. (1939). Applied Geology at Halkyn District United Mines Ltd. Trans. of the Inst. of Mining & Metallurgy. 48, pages 585-650.
SCHNELLMANN, G.A. (1959). Lead-Zinc Mining in the Carboniferous Limestone of North Wales. [in The Future of Non-Ferrous Mining in GB and Ireland] Inst. of Mining & Metallurgy, pages 235-257.
SMITH, B. (1921) Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of G.B. Vol.19. Lead and Zinc Ores of the Carboniferous Rocks of North Wales. Geological Survey Memoirs
STRAHAN, A. (1890). Geology of the neighbourhood of Flint, Mold and Ruthin. Memoirs of the Geological Survey.
THORBURN, J.A. (1986) Talargoch Mine (Sheffield: Northern Mine Research Society, British Mining No.31)


TIMBERLAKE, S. (1994) Archaeological & Circumstantial Evidence for Early Mining in Wales


WEBSTER, G. (1953) Lead Mining Industry in North Wales in Roman Times. Flintshire Historical Society Journal, Vol.13, pages 5-33
WILLIAMS, C.J. (1979) Llandudno Copper Mines (Sheffield: Northern Mine Research Society, British Mining No.9)


WILLIAMS, C.J. (1980) Lead Mines of the Alyn Valley (Flintshire Historical Society). Now available online: http://welshjournals.llgc.org.uk/browse/viewpage/llgc-id:1218518/llgc-id:1218642/llgc-id:1218707/get650
WILLIAMS, C.J. (1980) Lead Miners of Flintshire and Denbighshire. Llafur, Vol.3 No.1, pages 87-96 


WILLIAMS, C.J. (1994) Mining Laws of Flintshire and Denbighshire published in Mining Before Powder: PDMS Bulletin Vol 12, No. 3. Now available online: http://www.pdmhs.com/PDFs/ScannedBulletinArticles/Bulletin%2012-3%20-%20The%20Mining%20Laws%20in%20Flintshire%20and%20Denbighshire.pdf


WILLIAMS, C. J. (1996) Accidents in the Flintshire and Denbighshire Lead Mines 1873-1914. British Mining No 57, Northern Mine Research Society. In 2014 this became freely available online at:

WILLIAMS, C.J. (1997) Metal Mines of North Wales (Revised edition) ISBN: 1 872424 58 9
WILLIAMS, C.J. (1998) Handlist of the Grosvenor (Halkyn) MSS
WILLIAMS, C.J. (2012) Rediscovering the Lead and Zinc Production of North-East Wales. Welsh Mines Society Journal, Welsh Mines and Mining, No 2 (2012).

WILLIAMS, R. ALAN (2012) Hidden Bullion: Silver Production in North-East Wales. Welsh Mines Society Journal, Welsh Mines and Mining, No 2 (2012).